University of Minnesota
Critical Media Literacy
cml@umn.edu


Critical Media Literacy Homepage

Sources


For researchers and educators looking for existing research on children and media literacy, here is an extensive list of sources to consult:

Abad, V., & Williams, K. E. Early intervention music therapy: Reporting on a 3-year project to address needs with at-risk families. Music Therapy Perspectives, 25, 52-59.

Allen, M., Jorgenson, J., Ryan, D. J., Herrett-Skjellum, J., Kramer, M. R. & Timmerman, L.

(2007). Effects of music. In R. W. Preiss, B. M. Gayle, N. Burrell, M. Allen & J. Bryan (Eds). Mass Media Effects Research: Advances Through Meta-Analysis. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.

American Academy of Pediatrics. (1999). Understanding the impact of media on children and teens [Brochure]. Elk Grove Village, IL: Author.

American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Public Education. (2001). Children, adolescents, and television. Pediatrics, 107, 423-426.

Anderson, C.A., Berkowitz, L., Donnerstein, E., Huesmann, L.R., Johnson, J.D., Linz, D., et al. (2003). The influence of media violence on youth. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 4(3), 81-110.

Anderson, C. A., & Bushman, B. J. (2001). Effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousal, and prosocial behavior: A meta-analytic review of the scientific literature. Psychological Science, 12, 353-359.

Anderson, S. A. (2007). The effect of music on the reading comprehension of junior high school students. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences, 67.

Anderson, D.R., Lorch, E.P., Field, D.E., Collins, P.A., and Nathan, J.G. (1986). Television viewing at home: Age trends in visual attention and time with TV. Child Development, 57, 1024-1033.

Arnett, J. (1992). The soundtrack of recklessness: Musical preferences and reckless behavior among adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Research, 7, 313-331.

Ashby, S.L., Arcari, C.M., & Edmonson, B. (2006). Television viewing and risk of sexual initiation by young adolescents. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med., 160, 375-380.

Ayres, B. (Ed.). (2003). The emperor's old groove: Decolonizing Disney's magic kingdom. New York: Peter Lang.

Beasley, B. & Standley, T. C. (2002). Shirts vs. skins: Clothing as an indicator of gender role stereotyping in video games. Mass Communication and Society, 5, 279-293.

Begley, S. (2000). Music on the mind. Newsweek, 136, 50.

Bell, E., Haas, L. & Sells, E. (Eds.). (1995). From mouse to mermaid: The politics of film, gender and culture. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Bell, B. T., Lawton, R. & Dittmar, H. (YR). The impact of thin models in music videos on adolescent girls' body dissatisfaction. Body Image, 4, 137-145.

Bem, S. L. (1993). The lenses of gender: Transforming the debate on sexual inequality. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Blumenfeld, H., & Eisenfeld, L. (2006). Does a mother singing to her premature baby affect feeding in the neonatal intensive care unit? Clinical Pediatrics, 45, 65-70.

Boen, J. & Sampson, D. (1993). Movies, guns and kids. Pediatrics, 92, 188.

Boynton-Jarrett, R., Thomas, T.N., Peterson, K.E., Wiecha, J., Sobol, A.M., & Gortmaker, S.L. (2003). Impact of television viewing patterns on fruit and vegetable consumption among adolescents. Pediatrics, 112, 1321-1326.

Bretthauer, B., Zimmerman, T. S. & Banning, J. H. (2006). A feminist analysis of popular music: Power over, objectification of, and violence against women. Journal of Feminist Family Therapy, 18, 29-51.

Brockus, S. (2004). Where magic lives: Disney's Cultivation, co-creation, and control of America's cultural objects. Popular Communication, 2, 191-211.

Brooke, S. L. (2007). The use of the creative therapies with sexual abuse survivors. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas Publisher.

Brown, B., Bradford, & Mounts, N. (1993). Parenting practices and peer group affiliation in adolescence. Child Development, 64, 467-482.

Brown, J., Sherrill, C., & Gench, B. (1981). Effects of an integrated physical education/music program in changing early childhood perceptual-motor performance. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 53, 151-154.

Brown University. (2006). Music lessons may enhance cognitive development. Brown University Child & Adolescent Behavior Letter, 22, 2.

Brumberg, J. J. (1997). The body project: An intimate history of American girls. NY: Random House.

Budd, M. & Kirsch, M. H. (2005). Rethinking Disney: Private control, public dimensions. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press.

Bushman, B.J., & Huesmann, L.R. (2001). Effects of televised violence on aggression. In. D.G. Singer and J.L. Singer (eds.), Handbook of children and the media (pp. 223-254). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Cai, X. & Gantz, W. (2000). Online privacy issues associated with web sites for children. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 44, 197-215.

Campbell, P. S, Connell, C. & Beegle, A. (2007). Adolescents' expressed meanings of music in and out of school. Journal of Research in Music Education.

Cantor, J. (1998). Mommy I'm Scared: How TV and Movies Frighten Children and What We Can Do to Protect Them. New York: Harcourt Brace & Company.

Cantor, J. (2004). "I'll Never Have a Clown in My House"—Why movie horror lives on. Poetics Today, 25(2), 283-304.

Cantor, J., Mares, M., & Hyde, J. (2003). Autobiographical Memories of Exposure to Sexual Media Content. Media Psychology, 5, 1-31.

Cantor, J., Wilson, B.J., & Hoffner, C. (1986). Emotional responses to a televised nuclear holocaust film. Communication Research, 13, 257-277.

Cassity, H. D., Henley, T. B. & Markley, R. P. (2007). The Mozart Effect: Musical phenomenon or musical preference? A more ecologically valid reconsideration. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 34, 13-17.

Cella, D. F., Tulsky, D. S., Sarafian, B., Thomas, C. R, Jr., & Thomas, C. R., Sr. (1992). Culturally relevant smoking prevention for minority youth. Journal of School Health, 62, 377-380.

Chase, K. M. (2004). Music therapy assessment for children with developmental disabilities: A survey study. Journal of Music Therapy, 41, 28- 54.

Chen, D. D., Xiaohong, X. Q., Sallam, Z. J. Y., Chen, H. & Jiande, D. Z. (2008). Effects of audio

stimulation on gastric myoelectrical activity and sympathovagal balance in healthy adolescents and adults. Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, 23, 141-149.

Chen, M. J., Miller, B. A & Grube, J. W. (2006). Influence of music on youth behaviors. Brown University Child & Adolescent Behavior Letter, 22, 3-4.

Chinet, L., Philippe, S., Zobel, F., & Halfon, O. (2007). Party drug use in techno nights: A field survey among French-speaking Swiss attendees. Pharmacology, Biochemistry & Behavior, 86, 284-289.

Children Now. (2001). Fair play? Violence gender and race in video games. Oakland, CA: Children Now.

Cho, C. H & Cheon, H. J. (2005). Children's exposure to negative internet content: Effects of family context. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 49, 488-509.

Christakis, D.A., & Zimmerman, F.J. (2007). Violent television viewing during preschool is associated with antisocial behavior during school age. Pediatrics, 120, 993-999.

Committee on Public Education. (1999). Media education. Pediatrics, 104, 341-343.

Crowe, B. J. & Rio, R. (2004). Implications of technology in music therapy practice and research for music therapy education: A review of literature. Journal of Music Therapy, 41, 282-320.

Dalton, M., Adachi-Mejia, A., Longacre, M., Titus-Ernstoff, L., Gibson, J., Martin, S., Sargent, J., & Beach, M. (2006). Parental rules and monitoring of children's movie viewing associated with children's risk for smoking and drinking. Pediatrics, 118, 1932-1942.

Dalton, T. A. & Krout, R. E. (2006). The grief song-writing process with bereaved adolescents: An integrated grief model and music therapy protocol. Music Therapy Perspectives, 24, 94-107.

Davis, G. (2007). Children's media skew gender. USA Today. 19a.

Delmas, C., Platat, C., Schweitzer, B., Wagner, A., Oujaa, M., & Simon, C. (2007). Association between television in bedroom and adiposity throughout adolescence. Obestity, 15(10), 2495-2503.

Diamond, S., Bermudez, R. & Schensul, J. (2006). What's the rap about Ecstasy? Popular music lyrics and drug trends among American youth. Journal of Adolescent Research, 21, 269-298.

Diaz-Guerero, R., & Holtzman, W.H. (1974). Learning by televised "Plaza Sesamo" in Mexico. Journal of Educational Psychology, 66, 632-643.

Dietz, T. L. (1998). An examination of violence and gender role portrayals in video games: Implications for gender socialization. Sex Roles, 38, 425-433.

Dobson, R. (2006). Doctors will test whether Mozart can reduce stress in babies. British Medical Journal, 332, 688-688.

Donnerstein, E., Slaby, R. G., & Eron, L.D. (1994). The mass media and youth aggression. In L. D. Eron, J. H. Gentry, & P. Schlegel (Eds.), Reason to hope: A psychological perspective on violence and youth (pp. 219-250). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Downs, E. & Smith, S. L. (2007). Keeping abreast of hypersexuality: A video game character content analysis. Manuscript under review at Sex Roles.

Eleanor, D. (2007). To what extent does participation in extracurricular music affect the future aspirations of 11-12 year-olds? A small-scale investigation. British Journal of Music Education, 24, 99-115.

Eliakim, M., Meckel, V., Nemet, D. & Eliakim, A. (2007). The effect of music during warm-up on consecutive anaerobic performance in elite adolescent volleyball players. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 28, 321-325.

Entertainment Software Association. (2004). Top ten industry facts. Retrieved on April 15, 2008 from http://www.theesa.com/pressroom.html.

Eron, L.D., Huesmann, L.R., Brice, P., Fischer, P., & Mermelstein, R. (1983). Age trends in the development of aggression and associated television habits. Developmental Psychology, 19, 71-77.

Federal Trade Commision. (May, 2006). Social networking sites: Safety tips for tweens and teens. Retrieved March 18, 2008 from http://www.ftc.gov/ftc/sitemap.shtm.

Field, A.E., Cheung, L., & Wolf, A.M. (1999). Exposure to mass media and weight concerns among girls. Pediatrics, 103, 36.

Fisher, W. & Barack, A. (2001). Internet pornography: A social psychological perspective on internet sexuality. Journal of Sex Research, 38, 312-323.

Fleming, M. J. & Rickwood, D. J. (2001). Effects of violent versus nonviolent video games on children's arousal, aggressive mood, and positive mood. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 31, 2047-2071.

Flerx, V. C., Fidler, D. S., & Rogers, R. W. (1976). Sex Role Stereotypes: Developmental Aspects and Early Intervention. Child Development, 47, 998-1007.

Fling S., Smith, I., Rodriguez, T., Thornton, D., Atkins, E. & Nixon, K. (1992). Video games, aggression, and self-esteem: A survey. Social Behavior and Personality, 20, 39-46.

Fredrickson, B.L. & Roberts, T-A. (1997). Objectification theory: Toward understanding women's lived experience and mental health risks. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 21, 173-206.

Friedrich-Cofer, L.K., Huston-Stein, A., Kipnis, D.M., Susman, E.J., & Clewett, A.S. (1979). Environmental enhancement of prosocial television content: Effects on interpersonal behavior, imaginative play, and self-regulation in a natural setting. Environmental Psychology, 15, 637-646.

Gallo, S. (2004). Music preference with an emphasis on gangsta rap: Female adolescent identity, beliefs, and behaviors. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 64.

Game Ratings & Descriptor Guide. (2008). Entertainment Software Rating Board. Retrieved February 13, 2008 from http://www.esrb.org/ratings/ratings_guide.jsp.

Gardstrom, S. (1999). Music exposure and criminal behavior: Perceptions of juvenile offenders. Journal of Music Therapy, 36, 207-221.

Geist, E.A., & Gibson, M. (2000). The effect of network and public television on four and five year olds ability to attend to educational tasks. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 27, 250-261.

Generation M: Media in the Lives of 8-18 Year-olds. (2005). Kaiser Family Foundation. Retrieved February 13, 2008 from http://www.kff.org/entmedia/entmedia030905pkg.cfm

Gentile, D.A. (2003). Media Violence and Children: A Complete Guide for Parents and Professionals. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.

Gfeller, K. (2007). Professional perspectives of music therapy: A 30-year retrospective introduction. Music Therapy Perspectives, 25, 73-75.

Ghetti, C. M. (2002). Comparison of the effectiveness of three music therapy conditions to modulate behavior states in students with profound disabilities: A pilot study. Music Therapy Perspectives, 20, 20-30.

Ginsburg, K.R. (2007). Clinical report: The importance of play in promoting healthy child development and maintaining strong parent-child bonds. American Academy of Pediatrics.

Godeli, M. R., Santana, P. R., Souza, V. H P & Marquetti, G. P. (1996). Influence of background music on preschoolers' behavior: A naturalistic approach. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 82, 1123-1129.

Gold, C., Voracek, M. & Wigram, T. (2004). Effects of music therapy for children and adolescents with psychopathology: A meta-analysis. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45, 1054-1063.

Gorn, G.J., Goldberg, M.E., and Kanungo, R.N. (1976). The role of educational television in changing the intergroup attitudes of children. Child Development, 47, 277-280.

Greenfield, P. M., Bruzzone, L., Koyamatsu, K., Satuloff, W., Nixon, K., Brodie, M. & Kingsdale, D. (1987). What is rock music doing to the minds of our youth? A first experimental look at the effects of rock music lyrics and music videos. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 7, 315-329.

Hancox, R.J., Milne, B.J., & Poulton, R. (2005). Association of television viewing during childhood with poor educational development. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med., 159, 614-618.

Hakanen, E. A. (1995). Emotional use of music by African American adolescents. Howard Journal of Communications, 5, 214-222.

Haninger K., Ryan M.S., & Thompson K.M. (2001). Violence in teen-rated video games. Medscape General Medicine, 6, 124-139.

Harrison, K. & Cantor, J. (1999). Tales from the screen: Enduring fright reactions to scary media. Media Psychology, 1, 97-116.

Harrison, K. & Cantor, J. (1997). The relationship between media consumption and eating disorders. Journal of Communication, 47, 40-67.

Haugland, S. W. (1992). The effect of computer software on preschool children's developmental gains. Journal of Computing in Childhood Education, 3, 15-30.

Hilliard, R. E. (2007). The effects of Orff-based music therapy and social work groups on childhood grief symptoms and behaviors. Journal of Music Therapy, 44, 123-138.

Hinduja, Sameer, & Patchin, J. W. (2008). Personal information of adolescents on the internet: A quantitative content analysis of MySpace. Journal of Adolescence, 31, 125-146.

Ho, Y. C., Cheung, M. C. & Chan, A. S. (2003). Music training improves verbal but not visual memory: Cross-sectional and longitudinal explorations in children. Neuropsychology, 17, 439-450.

Hogan, M. J. (2001). Parents and other adults: Models and monitors of health media habits. In D. Singer & J. Singer (Eds.), Handbook of Children and the Media (pp. 663-680). Los Angeles, CA: Sage.

Hohman, C. (1998). Evaluating and selecting software for children. Child Care Information Exchange, 123, 60-62.

Holder-Nevins, D. & Bain, B. (2001). HIV/AIDS and children in the English speaking Caribbean.

Hornik, R. (1978). Television access and the slowing of cognitive growth. American Educational Research Journal, 15(1), 1-15.

Huesmann, L.R., & Eron, L.D. (1984). Cognitive processes and the persistence of aggressive behavior. Aggressive Behavior, 10, 243-251.

Huesmann, L.R., Moise, J., Podolski, C.P., & Eron, L.D. (2003). Longitudinal relations between children's exposure to TV violence and their aggressive and violent behavior in young adulthood: 1977-1992. Developmental Psychology, 39(2), 201-221.

Huston, A.C., Donnerstein, E., Fairchild, H., Feshbach, N.D., Katz, P.A., Murray, J.P., Rubinstein, E.A., Wilcox, B.L., & Zuckerman, D. (1992). Big world, small screen: The role of television in American society. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press.

Huston-Stein, A.C., Fox, S., Greer, D., Watkins, B.A., & Whitaker, J. (1981). The effects of action and violence in television programs on the social behavior and imaginative play of preschool children. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 138, 183-191.

Huston, A.C., & Wright, J.C. (1998). Television and the informational and educational needs of children. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 557, 9-23.

Jansma, L., Linz, D., Mulac, A. & Imrich, D. (1997). Men's interactions with women after viewing sexually explicit films: Does degradation make a difference? Communication Monographs, 64, 1-24.

Jensen Arnett, J. (2007). Encyclopedia of children, adolescents and the media. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.

Johnson, J.G., Cohen, P., Kasen, S., & Brook, J.S. (2007). Extensive television viewing and the development of attention and learning difficulties during adolescence. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med., 161, 480-486.

Johnson, J.G., Cohen, P., Smailes, E.M., Kasen, S., & Brook, J.S. (2002). Television viewing and aggressive behavior during adolescence and adulthood. Science, 295(5564), 2468-2471.

Johnsson-Smaragdi, U. & Jonsson, A. (1994). Self-evaluation in an ecological perspective: Neighbourhood, family and peers, schooling and media use. In K.E. Rosengren (Ed.). Media effects and behond. London: Routledge.

Johnston Polacek, G. N. L., Rojas, V., Levitt, S., & Mika, V. S. (2006). Media and sex: Perspectives from Hispanic teens. American Journal of Sexuality Education, 1, 51-69.

Jones, J. D. (2006a). Songs composed for use in music therapy: A survey of original songwriting practices of music therapists. Journal of Music Therapy, 43, 94-110.

Jones, J. D. (2006b). The use of control groups in music therapy research: A content analysis of articles in the Journal of Music Therapy. Journal of Music Therapy, 42, 334-355.

Jones, J. D. (2005). A comparison of songwriting and lyric analysis techniques to evoke emotional change in a single session with people who are chemically dependent. Journal of Music Therapy, 42, 94-110.

Kelly, J. & Smith, S. L. (2006). Where the girls aren't: Gender disparity saturates G-rated films. www.seejane.org

Kennedy, R. & Scott, A. (2005). A pilot study: The effects of music therapy intervention on middle school students' ESL skills. Journal of Music Therapy, 42, 244-261.

Klein, J., Brown, J., Dykers, C., Childers, K. W., Oliveri, J. & Porter, C. (1993). Adolescents risky behavior and mass media use. Pediatrics, 92, 24-31.

Knobloch, S. Vorderer, P., & Zillman, D. (2000). The impact of music preferences on the perception of potential friends in adolescence. Zeitschrift fur Sozialpsychologie, 31.

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Kuntsche, E.N. (2003). Hostility among adolescents in Switzerland? Multivariate relations between excessive media use and forms of violence. Journal of Adolescent Health, 34(3), 230-236.

Labre, M. P. (2002). Adolescent boys and the muscular male body ideal. Journal of Adolescent Health, 30, 233-242.

Landhuis, C.E., Poulton, R., Welch, D., & Hancox, R.J. (2007). Does childhood television viewing lead to attention problems in adolescence? Results from a prospective longitudinal study. Pediatrics, 120, 532-537.

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Lemish, D., Liebes, T. & Seidmann, V. (2001). Gendered Media Meanings and Uses. In S. Livingstone & M. Bovill (Ed.) Children and their changing media environment: A European comparative study. London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

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Lenhart, A., & Madden, M. (April 18, 2000). Teens, privacy and online social networks. Retrieved March 18, 2008 from http://pewinternet.org/PPF/r/211/report_display.asp.

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Miller, R. (1993). Life Goes On, television, AIDS, and the adolescent viewer: An empirical investigation. Senior thesis: Yale University.

Miranda, D. & Claes, M. (2004). Rap music genres and deviant behaviors in French-Canadian adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 33, 113-122.

Miranda, D. & Claes, M. (2007). Musical preferences and depression in adolescence. International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, 13.

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Montello, L. & Coons, E. E. (1998). Effects of active versus passive group music therapy on preadolescents with emotional, learning, and behavioral disorders. Journal of Music Therapy, 35, 49-67.

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Mulder, J., Bogt, T. T., Raaijmakers, Q. & Vollebergh, W. (2007). Music taste groups and problem behavior. Journal of Youth & Adolescence, 36, 313-324.

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Music therapy for depression (2008). Therapy Today, 19, 13.

Newcomb, M. D., St. Antoine Mercurio, C., & Wollard, C. A. (2000). Rock starts in anti-drug abuse commercials: An experimental study of adolescents' reactions. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 30, 1160-1185.

North, A. C. & Hargreaves, D. J. (1999). Music and adolescent identity. Music Education Research, 1, 75-92.

North, A. C. & Hargreaves, D. J. (2005). Brief report: Labeling effects on the perceived deleterious consequences of pop music listening. Journal of Adolescence, 28, 433-440.

North, A. C. & Hargreaves, D. J. (2006). Problem music and self-harming. Suicide and Life Threatening Behavior, 36, 582-590.

North, A. C., Hargreaves, D. J., & O'Neill, S. A. (2000). The importance of music to adolescents. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 70, 255-272.

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Pelletier, C. L. (2004). The effect of music on decreasing arousal due to stress: A meta-analysis. Journal of Music Therapy, 41, 192-214.

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Peterson, S. H., Wingood, G. M., DiClemente, R. J., Harrington, K. & Davies, S. (2007). Images of sexual stereotypes in rap videos and the health of African American female adolescents. Journal of Women's Health, 16, 1157-1164.

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Rickson, D. J. (2006). Instructional and improvisational models of music therapy with adolescents who have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): A comparison of effects on motor impulsivity. Journal of Music Therapy, 43, 39-62.

Robb, S. L. (2003). Designing music therapy interventions for hospitalized children and adolescents using a contextual support model of music therapy. Music Therapy Perspectives, 21, 27-40.

Roberts, D. F. & Christenson, P. G. (2001). Popular music in childhood and adolescence. In D.G. Singer & J. L. Singer (Eds.). Handbook of Children and the Media. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.

Roberts, M. (2006). "I want to play and sing my story": Home-based songwriting for bereaved children and adolescents. The Australian Journal of Music Therapy, 17, 18-34.

Roberts-Grey, G. (2006). Vexing video games—how they really affect our children. North Fulton Family. Retrieved February 13, 2008 from http://northfultonfamily.com/ editorial2.lasso?id=1611

Rock, A.M., Trainor, L. J., & Addison, T. L. (1999). Distinctive messages in infant-directed lullabies and play songs. Developmental Psychology, 35, 527-534.

Ryan, E. & Hoerrner, K. (2004). Let your conscience be your guide: Smoking and drinking in Disney's animated classics. Mass Communication and Society, 7(3), 261-278.

Scheel, K. R. & Westefeld, J. S. (1999). Heavy metal music and adolescent suicidality: An empirical investigation. Adolescence, 34, 253-273.

Schellenberg, E. G. (2005). Music and cognitive abilities. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 14, 317-320.

Sexuality, contraception, and the media. (2001). Pediatrics, 107, 191-194.

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Silverman, M. J. (2006). Forty years of case studies: A history of clinical case studies in the Journal of Music Therapy, Music Therapy and Music Therapy Perspectives. Music Therapy Perspectives, 24, 4-12.

Silverman, M. J. (2003). The influence of music on the symptoms of psychosis: A meta-analysis. Journal of Music Therapy, 40, 27-40.

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