For researchers and educators looking for existing research on children and media literacy, here is an extensive list of sources to consult:
Abad, V., & Williams, K. E. Early intervention music therapy: Reporting on a 3-year project to address needs with at-risk families. Music Therapy Perspectives, 25, 52-59.
Allen, M., Jorgenson, J., Ryan, D. J., Herrett-Skjellum, J., Kramer, M. R. & Timmerman, L.
(2007). Effects of music. In R. W. Preiss, B. M. Gayle, N. Burrell, M. Allen & J. Bryan (Eds). Mass Media Effects Research: Advances Through Meta-Analysis. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.
American Academy of Pediatrics. (1999). Understanding the impact of media on children and teens [Brochure]. Elk Grove Village, IL: Author.
American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Public Education. (2001). Children, adolescents, and television. Pediatrics, 107, 423-426.
Anderson, C.A., Berkowitz, L., Donnerstein, E., Huesmann, L.R., Johnson, J.D., Linz, D., et al. (2003). The influence of media violence on youth. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 4(3), 81-110.
Anderson, C. A., & Bushman, B. J. (2001). Effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousal, and prosocial behavior: A meta-analytic review of the scientific literature. Psychological Science, 12, 353-359.
Anderson, S. A. (2007). The effect of music on the reading comprehension of junior high school students. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences, 67.
Anderson, D.R., Lorch, E.P., Field, D.E., Collins, P.A., and Nathan, J.G. (1986). Television viewing at home: Age trends in visual attention and time with TV. Child Development, 57, 1024-1033.
Arnett, J. (1992). The soundtrack of recklessness: Musical preferences and reckless behavior among adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Research, 7, 313-331.
Ashby, S.L., Arcari, C.M., & Edmonson, B. (2006). Television viewing and risk of sexual initiation by young adolescents. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med., 160, 375-380.
Ayres, B. (Ed.). (2003). The emperor's old groove: Decolonizing Disney's magic kingdom. New York: Peter Lang.
Beasley, B. & Standley, T. C. (2002). Shirts vs. skins: Clothing as an indicator of gender role stereotyping in video games. Mass Communication and Society, 5, 279-293.
Begley, S. (2000). Music on the mind. Newsweek, 136, 50.
Bell, E., Haas, L. & Sells, E. (Eds.). (1995). From mouse to mermaid: The politics of film, gender and culture. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Bell, B. T., Lawton, R. & Dittmar, H. (YR). The impact of thin models in music videos on adolescent girls' body dissatisfaction. Body Image, 4, 137-145.
Bem, S. L. (1993). The lenses of gender: Transforming the debate on sexual inequality. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Blumenfeld, H., & Eisenfeld, L. (2006). Does a mother singing to her premature baby affect feeding in the neonatal intensive care unit? Clinical Pediatrics, 45, 65-70.
Boen, J. & Sampson, D. (1993). Movies, guns and kids. Pediatrics, 92, 188.
Boynton-Jarrett, R., Thomas, T.N., Peterson, K.E., Wiecha, J., Sobol, A.M., & Gortmaker, S.L. (2003). Impact of television viewing patterns on fruit and vegetable consumption among adolescents. Pediatrics, 112, 1321-1326.
Bretthauer, B., Zimmerman, T. S. & Banning, J. H. (2006). A feminist analysis of popular music: Power over, objectification of, and violence against women. Journal of Feminist Family Therapy, 18, 29-51.
Brockus, S. (2004). Where magic lives: Disney's Cultivation, co-creation, and control of America's cultural objects. Popular Communication, 2, 191-211.
Brooke, S. L. (2007). The use of the creative therapies with sexual abuse survivors. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas Publisher.
Brown, B., Bradford, & Mounts, N. (1993). Parenting practices and peer group affiliation in adolescence. Child Development, 64, 467-482.
Brown, J., Sherrill, C., & Gench, B. (1981). Effects of an integrated physical education/music program in changing early childhood perceptual-motor performance. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 53, 151-154.
Brown University. (2006). Music lessons may enhance cognitive development. Brown University Child & Adolescent Behavior Letter, 22, 2.
Brumberg, J. J. (1997). The body project: An intimate history of American girls. NY: Random House.
Budd, M. & Kirsch, M. H. (2005). Rethinking Disney: Private control, public dimensions. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press.
Bushman, B.J., & Huesmann, L.R. (2001). Effects of televised violence on aggression. In. D.G. Singer and J.L. Singer (eds.), Handbook of children and the media (pp. 223-254). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Cai, X. & Gantz, W. (2000). Online privacy issues associated with web sites for children. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 44, 197-215.
Campbell, P. S, Connell, C. & Beegle, A. (2007). Adolescents' expressed meanings of music in and out of school. Journal of Research in Music Education.
Cantor, J. (1998). Mommy I'm Scared: How TV and Movies Frighten Children and What We Can Do to Protect Them. New York: Harcourt Brace & Company.
Cantor, J. (2004). "I'll Never Have a Clown in My House"—Why movie horror lives on. Poetics Today, 25(2), 283-304.
Cantor, J., Mares, M., & Hyde, J. (2003). Autobiographical Memories of Exposure to Sexual Media Content. Media Psychology, 5, 1-31.
Cantor, J., Wilson, B.J., & Hoffner, C. (1986). Emotional responses to a televised nuclear holocaust film. Communication Research, 13, 257-277.
Cassity, H. D., Henley, T. B. & Markley, R. P. (2007). The Mozart Effect: Musical phenomenon or musical preference? A more ecologically valid reconsideration. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 34, 13-17.
Cella, D. F., Tulsky, D. S., Sarafian, B., Thomas, C. R, Jr., & Thomas, C. R., Sr. (1992). Culturally relevant smoking prevention for minority youth. Journal of School Health, 62, 377-380.
Chase, K. M. (2004). Music therapy assessment for children with developmental disabilities: A survey study. Journal of Music Therapy, 41, 28- 54.
Chen, D. D., Xiaohong, X. Q., Sallam, Z. J. Y., Chen, H. & Jiande, D. Z. (2008). Effects of audio
stimulation on gastric myoelectrical activity and sympathovagal balance in healthy adolescents and adults. Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, 23, 141-149.
Chen, M. J., Miller, B. A & Grube, J. W. (2006). Influence of music on youth behaviors. Brown University Child & Adolescent Behavior Letter, 22, 3-4.
Chinet, L., Philippe, S., Zobel, F., & Halfon, O. (2007). Party drug use in techno nights: A field survey among French-speaking Swiss attendees. Pharmacology, Biochemistry & Behavior, 86, 284-289.
Children Now. (2001). Fair play? Violence gender and race in video games. Oakland, CA: Children Now.
Cho, C. H & Cheon, H. J. (2005). Children's exposure to negative internet content: Effects of family context. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 49, 488-509.
Christakis, D.A., & Zimmerman, F.J. (2007). Violent television viewing during preschool is associated with antisocial behavior during school age. Pediatrics, 120, 993-999.
Committee on Public Education. (1999). Media education. Pediatrics, 104, 341-343.
Crowe, B. J. & Rio, R. (2004). Implications of technology in music therapy practice and research for music therapy education: A review of literature. Journal of Music Therapy, 41, 282-320.
Dalton, M., Adachi-Mejia, A., Longacre, M., Titus-Ernstoff, L., Gibson, J., Martin, S., Sargent, J., & Beach, M. (2006). Parental rules and monitoring of children's movie viewing associated with children's risk for smoking and drinking. Pediatrics, 118, 1932-1942.
Dalton, T. A. & Krout, R. E. (2006). The grief song-writing process with bereaved adolescents: An integrated grief model and music therapy protocol. Music Therapy Perspectives, 24, 94-107.
Davis, G. (2007). Children's media skew gender. USA Today. 19a.
Delmas, C., Platat, C., Schweitzer, B., Wagner, A., Oujaa, M., & Simon, C. (2007). Association between television in bedroom and adiposity throughout adolescence. Obestity, 15(10), 2495-2503.
Diamond, S., Bermudez, R. & Schensul, J. (2006). What's the rap about Ecstasy? Popular music lyrics and drug trends among American youth. Journal of Adolescent Research, 21, 269-298.
Diaz-Guerero, R., & Holtzman, W.H. (1974). Learning by televised "Plaza Sesamo" in Mexico. Journal of Educational Psychology, 66, 632-643.
Dietz, T. L. (1998). An examination of violence and gender role portrayals in video games: Implications for gender socialization. Sex Roles, 38, 425-433.
Dobson, R. (2006). Doctors will test whether Mozart can reduce stress in babies. British Medical Journal, 332, 688-688.
Donnerstein, E., Slaby, R. G., & Eron, L.D. (1994). The mass media and youth aggression. In L. D. Eron, J. H. Gentry, & P. Schlegel (Eds.), Reason to hope: A psychological perspective on violence and youth (pp. 219-250). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Downs, E. & Smith, S. L. (2007). Keeping abreast of hypersexuality: A video game character content analysis. Manuscript under review at Sex Roles.
Eleanor, D. (2007). To what extent does participation in extracurricular music affect the future aspirations of 11-12 year-olds? A small-scale investigation. British Journal of Music Education, 24, 99-115.
Eliakim, M., Meckel, V., Nemet, D. & Eliakim, A. (2007). The effect of music during warm-up on consecutive anaerobic performance in elite adolescent volleyball players. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 28, 321-325.
Entertainment Software Association. (2004). Top ten industry facts. Retrieved on April 15, 2008 from http://www.theesa.com/pressroom.html.
Eron, L.D., Huesmann, L.R., Brice, P., Fischer, P., & Mermelstein, R. (1983). Age trends in the development of aggression and associated television habits. Developmental Psychology, 19, 71-77.
Federal Trade Commision. (May, 2006). Social networking sites: Safety tips for tweens and teens. Retrieved March 18, 2008 from http://www.ftc.gov/ftc/sitemap.shtm.
Field, A.E., Cheung, L., & Wolf, A.M. (1999). Exposure to mass media and weight concerns among girls. Pediatrics, 103, 36.
Fisher, W. & Barack, A. (2001). Internet pornography: A social psychological perspective on internet sexuality. Journal of Sex Research, 38, 312-323.
Fleming, M. J. & Rickwood, D. J. (2001). Effects of violent versus nonviolent video games on children's arousal, aggressive mood, and positive mood. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 31, 2047-2071.
Flerx, V. C., Fidler, D. S., & Rogers, R. W. (1976). Sex Role Stereotypes: Developmental Aspects and Early Intervention. Child Development, 47, 998-1007.
Fling S., Smith, I., Rodriguez, T., Thornton, D., Atkins, E. & Nixon, K. (1992). Video games, aggression, and self-esteem: A survey. Social Behavior and Personality, 20, 39-46.
Fredrickson, B.L. & Roberts, T-A. (1997). Objectification theory: Toward understanding women's lived experience and mental health risks. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 21, 173-206.
Friedrich-Cofer, L.K., Huston-Stein, A., Kipnis, D.M., Susman, E.J., & Clewett, A.S. (1979). Environmental enhancement of prosocial television content: Effects on interpersonal behavior, imaginative play, and self-regulation in a natural setting. Environmental Psychology, 15, 637-646.
Gallo, S. (2004). Music preference with an emphasis on gangsta rap: Female adolescent identity, beliefs, and behaviors. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 64.
Game Ratings & Descriptor Guide. (2008). Entertainment Software Rating Board. Retrieved February 13, 2008 from http://www.esrb.org/ratings/ratings_guide.jsp.
Gardstrom, S. (1999). Music exposure and criminal behavior: Perceptions of juvenile offenders. Journal of Music Therapy, 36, 207-221.
Geist, E.A., & Gibson, M. (2000). The effect of network and public television on four and five year olds ability to attend to educational tasks. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 27, 250-261.
Generation M: Media in the Lives of 8-18 Year-olds. (2005). Kaiser Family Foundation. Retrieved February 13, 2008 from http://www.kff.org/entmedia/entmedia030905pkg.cfm
Gentile, D.A. (2003). Media Violence and Children: A Complete Guide for Parents and Professionals. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
Gfeller, K. (2007). Professional perspectives of music therapy: A 30-year retrospective introduction. Music Therapy Perspectives, 25, 73-75.
Ghetti, C. M. (2002). Comparison of the effectiveness of three music therapy conditions to modulate behavior states in students with profound disabilities: A pilot study. Music Therapy Perspectives, 20, 20-30.
Ginsburg, K.R. (2007). Clinical report: The importance of play in promoting healthy child development and maintaining strong parent-child bonds. American Academy of Pediatrics.
Godeli, M. R., Santana, P. R., Souza, V. H P & Marquetti, G. P. (1996). Influence of background music on preschoolers' behavior: A naturalistic approach. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 82, 1123-1129.
Gold, C., Voracek, M. & Wigram, T. (2004). Effects of music therapy for children and adolescents with psychopathology: A meta-analysis. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45, 1054-1063.
Gorn, G.J., Goldberg, M.E., and Kanungo, R.N. (1976). The role of educational television in changing the intergroup attitudes of children. Child Development, 47, 277-280.
Greenfield, P. M., Bruzzone, L., Koyamatsu, K., Satuloff, W., Nixon, K., Brodie, M. & Kingsdale, D. (1987). What is rock music doing to the minds of our youth? A first experimental look at the effects of rock music lyrics and music videos. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 7, 315-329.
Hancox, R.J., Milne, B.J., & Poulton, R. (2005). Association of television viewing during childhood with poor educational development. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med., 159, 614-618.
Hakanen, E. A. (1995). Emotional use of music by African American adolescents. Howard Journal of Communications, 5, 214-222.
Haninger K., Ryan M.S., & Thompson K.M. (2001). Violence in teen-rated video games. Medscape General Medicine, 6, 124-139.
Harrison, K. & Cantor, J. (1999). Tales from the screen: Enduring fright reactions to scary media. Media Psychology, 1, 97-116.
Harrison, K. & Cantor, J. (1997). The relationship between media consumption and eating disorders. Journal of Communication, 47, 40-67.
Haugland, S. W. (1992). The effect of computer software on preschool children's developmental gains. Journal of Computing in Childhood Education, 3, 15-30.
Hilliard, R. E. (2007). The effects of Orff-based music therapy and social work groups on childhood grief symptoms and behaviors. Journal of Music Therapy, 44, 123-138.
Hinduja, Sameer, & Patchin, J. W. (2008). Personal information of adolescents on the internet: A quantitative content analysis of MySpace. Journal of Adolescence, 31, 125-146.
Ho, Y. C., Cheung, M. C. & Chan, A. S. (2003). Music training improves verbal but not visual memory: Cross-sectional and longitudinal explorations in children. Neuropsychology, 17, 439-450.
Hogan, M. J. (2001). Parents and other adults: Models and monitors of health media habits. In D. Singer & J. Singer (Eds.), Handbook of Children and the Media (pp. 663-680). Los Angeles, CA: Sage.
Hohman, C. (1998). Evaluating and selecting software for children. Child Care Information Exchange, 123, 60-62.
Holder-Nevins, D. & Bain, B. (2001). HIV/AIDS and children in the English speaking Caribbean.
Hornik, R. (1978). Television access and the slowing of cognitive growth. American Educational Research Journal, 15(1), 1-15.
Huesmann, L.R., & Eron, L.D. (1984). Cognitive processes and the persistence of aggressive behavior. Aggressive Behavior, 10, 243-251.
Huesmann, L.R., Moise, J., Podolski, C.P., & Eron, L.D. (2003). Longitudinal relations between children's exposure to TV violence and their aggressive and violent behavior in young adulthood: 1977-1992. Developmental Psychology, 39(2), 201-221.
Huston, A.C., Donnerstein, E., Fairchild, H., Feshbach, N.D., Katz, P.A., Murray, J.P., Rubinstein, E.A., Wilcox, B.L., & Zuckerman, D. (1992). Big world, small screen: The role of television in American society. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press.
Huston-Stein, A.C., Fox, S., Greer, D., Watkins, B.A., & Whitaker, J. (1981). The effects of action and violence in television programs on the social behavior and imaginative play of preschool children. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 138, 183-191.
Huston, A.C., & Wright, J.C. (1998). Television and the informational and educational needs of children. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 557, 9-23.
Jansma, L., Linz, D., Mulac, A. & Imrich, D. (1997). Men's interactions with women after viewing sexually explicit films: Does degradation make a difference? Communication Monographs, 64, 1-24.
Jensen Arnett, J. (2007). Encyclopedia of children, adolescents and the media. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
Johnson, J.G., Cohen, P., Kasen, S., & Brook, J.S. (2007). Extensive television viewing and the development of attention and learning difficulties during adolescence. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med., 161, 480-486.
Johnson, J.G., Cohen, P., Smailes, E.M., Kasen, S., & Brook, J.S. (2002). Television viewing and aggressive behavior during adolescence and adulthood. Science, 295(5564), 2468-2471.
Johnsson-Smaragdi, U. & Jonsson, A. (1994). Self-evaluation in an ecological perspective: Neighbourhood, family and peers, schooling and media use. In K.E. Rosengren (Ed.). Media effects and behond. London: Routledge.
Johnston Polacek, G. N. L., Rojas, V., Levitt, S., & Mika, V. S. (2006). Media and sex: Perspectives from Hispanic teens. American Journal of Sexuality Education, 1, 51-69.
Jones, J. D. (2006a). Songs composed for use in music therapy: A survey of original songwriting practices of music therapists. Journal of Music Therapy, 43, 94-110.
Jones, J. D. (2006b). The use of control groups in music therapy research: A content analysis of articles in the Journal of Music Therapy. Journal of Music Therapy, 42, 334-355.
Jones, J. D. (2005). A comparison of songwriting and lyric analysis techniques to evoke emotional change in a single session with people who are chemically dependent. Journal of Music Therapy, 42, 94-110.
Kelly, J. & Smith, S. L. (2006). Where the girls aren't: Gender disparity saturates G-rated films. www.seejane.org
Kennedy, R. & Scott, A. (2005). A pilot study: The effects of music therapy intervention on middle school students' ESL skills. Journal of Music Therapy, 42, 244-261.
Klein, J., Brown, J., Dykers, C., Childers, K. W., Oliveri, J. & Porter, C. (1993). Adolescents risky behavior and mass media use. Pediatrics, 92, 24-31.
Knobloch, S. Vorderer, P., & Zillman, D. (2000). The impact of music preferences on the perception of potential friends in adolescence. Zeitschrift fur Sozialpsychologie, 31.
Kodaira, S. (1990). The development of programs for young children in Japan. Journal of Educational Television, 16(3), 127-150.
Kuntsche, E.N. (2003). Hostility among adolescents in Switzerland? Multivariate relations between excessive media use and forms of violence. Journal of Adolescent Health, 34(3), 230-236.
Labre, M. P. (2002). Adolescent boys and the muscular male body ideal. Journal of Adolescent Health, 30, 233-242.
Landhuis, C.E., Poulton, R., Welch, D., & Hancox, R.J. (2007). Does childhood television viewing lead to attention problems in adolescence? Results from a prospective longitudinal study. Pediatrics, 120, 532-537.
Leming, J. S. (1987). Rock music and the socialization of moral values in early adolescence. Youth & Society, 18, 363-383.
Lemish, D., Liebes, T. & Seidmann, V. (2001). Gendered Media Meanings and Uses. In S. Livingstone & M. Bovill (Ed.) Children and their changing media environment: A European comparative study. London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Lemish, D., and Rice, M.L. (1986). Television as a talking picture book: A prop for language acquisition. Journal of Child Language, 13, 251-274.
Lenhart, A. (March 17, 2005). Protecting teens online. Retrieved March 18, 2008 from http://www.pewinternet.org/PPF/r/152/report_display.asp.
Lenhart, A., & Madden, M. (April 18, 2000). Teens, privacy and online social networks. Retrieved March 18, 2008 from http://pewinternet.org/PPF/r/211/report_display.asp.
Malamuth, N.M. (1989). Sexually violent media, thought patterns, and antisocial behavior. In G. Comstock (ed.), Public communication and behavior. Volume 2 (p. 159-204). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Malamuth, N.M., & Check, J.V.P. (1981). The effects of mass media exposure on acceptance of violence against women: A field experiment. Journal of Research in Personality, 12,
McCarron, A. & Tierney, K. J. (1989). The effect of auditory stimulation on the consumption of soft drinks. Appetite, 13, 155-159.
Metzloff, A.N. (1988). Imitation of televised models by infants. Child Development, 59, 1221-1229.
Miller, R. (1993). Life Goes On, television, AIDS, and the adolescent viewer: An empirical investigation. Senior thesis: Yale University.
Miranda, D. & Claes, M. (2004). Rap music genres and deviant behaviors in French-Canadian adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 33, 113-122.
Miranda, D. & Claes, M. (2007). Musical preferences and depression in adolescence. International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, 13.
Mischel, W. (1970). Sex-typing and socialization. In P.H. Mussen (Ed.) Carmichael's manual of child psychology. New York: Wiley.
Montello, L. & Coons, E. E. (1998). Effects of active versus passive group music therapy on preadolescents with emotional, learning, and behavioral disorders. Journal of Music Therapy, 35, 49-67.
Montgomery, K. C. (2001). Digital kids: The new on-line children's consumer culture. In D. Singer & J. Singer (Eds.), Handbook of Children and the Media (pp. 635-649). Los Angeles, CA: Sage.
Movies' Unfair Portrayal of Males. (July 2006). USA Today Magazine. 135: 2734, p. 6.
Mulder, J., Bogt, T. T., Raaijmakers, Q. & Vollebergh, W. (2007). Music taste groups and problem behavior. Journal of Youth & Adolescence, 36, 313-324.
Murnen, S. K., Smolak, L., Mills, J. A., & Good, L. (2003). Thin, sexy women and strong, muscular men: Grade school children's reactions to objectified images of women and men. Sex Roles, 49, 427-437.
Music therapy for depression (2008). Therapy Today, 19, 13.
Newcomb, M. D., St. Antoine Mercurio, C., & Wollard, C. A. (2000). Rock starts in anti-drug abuse commercials: An experimental study of adolescents' reactions. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 30, 1160-1185.
North, A. C. & Hargreaves, D. J. (1999). Music and adolescent identity. Music Education Research, 1, 75-92.
North, A. C. & Hargreaves, D. J. (2005). Brief report: Labeling effects on the perceived deleterious consequences of pop music listening. Journal of Adolescence, 28, 433-440.
North, A. C. & Hargreaves, D. J. (2006). Problem music and self-harming. Suicide and Life Threatening Behavior, 36, 582-590.
North, A. C., Hargreaves, D. J., & O'Neill, S. A. (2000). The importance of music to adolescents. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 70, 255-272.
Oon, S.F. (2004). "Nintendo-isation": Sedentary lifestyles, obesity and increasing health problems including type 2 diabetes in modern day children and adolescents. Trinity Student Medical Journal, 5, 21-24.
Oppliger, P. A. (2007). Effects of gender stereotyping on socialization. In R. W. Preiss, B. M. Gayle, N. Burrell, M. Allen & J. Bryant (Eds.), Mass media effects research: Advances through meta-analysis. (pp. 199-214). Mahwah, NJ: L. Erlbaum Associates.
Ozmert, E., Toyran, M., & Yurdakok, K. (2002). Behavioral correlates of television viewing in primary school children evaluated by the child behavior checklist. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med., 156, 910-914.
Paik, H. & Comstock, G. (1994). "The Effects of Television Violence on Antisocial Behavior: A meta-analysis." Commun Research. 21, 516-546.
Painter, G. (1966). The effects of a rhythmic and sensory motor activity program on perceptual motor spatial abilities of kindergarten children. Exceptional Children, 33, 113-116.
Patterson, M. & Kraut, R. (1998). Internet paradox: A social technology that reduces social involvement and psychological well-being. American Psychologist, 53, 1017-1032.
Pelletier, C. L. (2004). The effect of music on decreasing arousal due to stress: A meta-analysis. Journal of Music Therapy, 41, 192-214.
Persaud, R. (June 11, 2004). Teenage victims of heavy stuff. The Times Educational Supplement, 21.
Peterson, S. H., Wingood, G. M., DiClemente, R. J., Harrington, K. & Davies, S. (2007). Images of sexual stereotypes in rap videos and the health of African American female adolescents. Journal of Women's Health, 16, 1157-1164.
Polce-Lynch, M., Myers, B., Kliewer, W., & Kilmartin, C. (2001). Adolescent self-esteem and gender: Exploring relations to sexual harassment, body image, media influence, and emotional expression. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 30, 225-244.
Potts, R., Huston, A.C., & Wright, J.C. (1986). The effects of television form and violent content on boys' attention and social behavior. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 41, 1-17.
Potts, R., Huston, A.C., & Wright, J.C. (1982). The forms of television: Effects on children's attention, comprehension, and social behavior. In D. Pearl, L. Bouthilet, and J. Lazar (eds.), Television and behavior: Ten years of scientific progress and implications for the eighties. Vol. 2: Technical Reviews (pp. 24-38). Rockville, MD: National Institute of Mental Health.
Rickson, D. J. (2006). Instructional and improvisational models of music therapy with adolescents who have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): A comparison of effects on motor impulsivity. Journal of Music Therapy, 43, 39-62.
Robb, S. L. (2003). Designing music therapy interventions for hospitalized children and adolescents using a contextual support model of music therapy. Music Therapy Perspectives, 21, 27-40.
Roberts, D. F. & Christenson, P. G. (2001). Popular music in childhood and adolescence. In D.G. Singer & J. L. Singer (Eds.). Handbook of Children and the Media. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
Roberts, M. (2006). "I want to play and sing my story": Home-based songwriting for bereaved children and adolescents. The Australian Journal of Music Therapy, 17, 18-34.
Roberts-Grey, G. (2006). Vexing video games—how they really affect our children. North Fulton Family. Retrieved February 13, 2008 from http://northfultonfamily.com/ editorial2.lasso?id=1611
Rock, A.M., Trainor, L. J., & Addison, T. L. (1999). Distinctive messages in infant-directed lullabies and play songs. Developmental Psychology, 35, 527-534.
Ryan, E. & Hoerrner, K. (2004). Let your conscience be your guide: Smoking and drinking in Disney's animated classics. Mass Communication and Society, 7(3), 261-278.
Scheel, K. R. & Westefeld, J. S. (1999). Heavy metal music and adolescent suicidality: An empirical investigation. Adolescence, 34, 253-273.
Schellenberg, E. G. (2005). Music and cognitive abilities. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 14, 317-320.
Sexuality, contraception, and the media. (2001). Pediatrics, 107, 191-194.
Sherry, J. L. (2001). The effects of violent video games on aggression: A meta-analysis. Human Communication Research, 27, 409-431.
Singer, D.G., & Singer, J.L. (1994). Evaluating the classroom viewing of a television series: Degrassi Junior High. In Media, Children, and the Family (D. Zillmann, J. Bryant, and A.C. Huston, Eds.). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Singer, J.L, & Singer, D.G. (1976). Can TV stimulate imaginative play? Journal of Communication, 26, 74-80.
Silverman, M. J. (2006). Forty years of case studies: A history of clinical case studies in the Journal of Music Therapy, Music Therapy and Music Therapy Perspectives. Music Therapy Perspectives, 24, 4-12.
Silverman, M. J. (2003). The influence of music on the symptoms of psychosis: A meta-analysis. Journal of Music Therapy, 40, 27-40.
Slatalla, M. (1999, August 17). Young shoppers with online accounts learn about choices and budgeting. New York Times News Service.
Smith, S. L. & Cook, C. A. (2008). Gender Stereotypes: An Analysis of Popular Films and TV. The Geena Davis Institute on Gender and Media.
Snyder, S. (1991). Movies and juvenile delinquency: An overview. Adolescence, 26(101), 121-133.
Spitzer, B.L., Henderson, K.A., & Zivian, M.T. (1999). Gender differences in population versus media body sizes: A comparison over four decades. Sex Roles, 40, 545-565.
Squires, C. T., Kohn-Wood, L. P., Chavous, T. & Carter, P. L. (2006). Evaluating agency and responsibility in gendered violence: African American youth talk about violence and hip hop. Sex Roles, 55, 725-737.
Standley, J. M. (2002). A meta-analysis of the efficacy of music therapy for premature infants. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 17, 107-113.
Standley, J. M. (1996). A meta-analysis on the effects of music as reinforcement for education/therapy objectives. Journal of Research in Music Education, 44, 105-133.
Staszko, G. (2006). A model for a violence prevention program incorporating hip hop music as an intervention strategy. Dissertation Abstracts International Section B: The Sciences ad Engineering, 67.
Steglich, C., Snijders, T. A. B., & West, P. (2006). Applying SIENA: An illustrative analysis of the coevolution of adolescents' friendship networks, taste in music, and alcohol consumption. Methodology: European Journal of Research Methods for the Behavioral and Social Sciences, 2.
Stephens, D. P., Few, A. L. (2007). The effects of images of African American women in hip hop on early adolescents' attitudes toward physical attractiveness and interpersonal relationships. Sex Roles, 56, 251-264.
Subrahmanyam, K., Greenfield, P., Kraut. R., & Gross, E. (2001). The impact of computer use on children's and adolescent's development. Applied Developmental Psychology, 22, 7-30.
Subrahmanyam, K. & Lin, G. (2007). Adolescents on the net: Internet use and well-being. Adolescence, 42, 659-677.
Sullivan, R. E. (2003). Rap and race: It's got a nice beat, but what about the message? Journal of Black Studies, 33, 605-622.
Takahashi, N. (1991). Development changes of interest to animated stories in toddlers measured by eye movement while watching them. Psychologia: An International Journal of Psychology in the Orient, 34, 63-68.
Tanimura, M., Okuma, K., & Kyoshima, K. (2007). Television viewing, reduced parental utterance, and delayed speech development in infants and young children. Arch Pediatric Adolesc Med., 161, 618-619.
Tarpley, T. (2001). Children, the internet, and other new technologies. In D. Singer & J. Singer (Eds.), Handbook of Children and the Media (pp. 547-556). Los Angeles, CA: Sage.
Tarrant, M., North, A. C. & Hargreaves, D. J. (2000). English and American adolescents' reasons for listening to music. Psychology of Music, 28, 166-173.
Taveras, E.M., Sandora, T.J., Shih, M., Ross-Degnan, D., Goldmann, D.A., & Gillman, M.W. (2006). The association of television and video viewing with fast food intake by preschool-age children. Obesity, 14(11), 2034-2041.
Thompson, D.A., & Christakis, D.A. (2005). The association between television viewing and irregular sleep schedules among children less than 3 years of age. Pediatrics, 116, 851-856.
Thompson, K. M., & Haninger, K. (2001). Violence in E-rated video games. Journal of American Medical Association, 286, 591-598.
Thompson, K.M., Tepichin, K., & Haninger, K. (2006). Content and ratings of Mature rated video games. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 160, 402-410.
Tobacco Use: Adolescents who watch smoking in movies are more likely to try smoking. (2005, Nov 21). Health and Medicine Week, 1501.
Tobiason, K (1997). Taking by giving: KidsConnect and your media center. Technology Connection, 4, 10-11.
Took, K. J & Weiss, D. S. (1994). The relationship between heavy metal and rap music and adolescent turmoil: Real or artifact? Adolescence, 29, 613-621.
Tower, R.B., Singer, D.G., Singer, J.L., & Biggs, A. (1979). Differential effects of television programming on preschoolers' cognition, imagination, and social play. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 49, 265-281.
Tynes, B. M. (2007). Internet safety gone wild: Sacrificing the education and psychosocial benefits of online social environments. Journal of Adolescent Research, 22, 575-584.
Tyson, E. H. (2005). The Rap Music Attitude and Perception (RAP) Scale: Scale development and preliminary analysis of psychometric properties. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 11, 59-82.
Valcke, M., Schellens, T., Van Keer, H., & Gerarts, M. Primary school children's safe and unsafe use of the internet at home and at school: An exploratory study. Computers in Human Behavior, 23, 2838-2850.
Valkenburg, P. M. (2006). Friend networking sites and their relationship to adolescents' well-being and social self-steem. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 9, 584-590.
Valkenburg, P.M., Vooijs, M.W., van der Voort, T.H.A., & Wiegman, O. (1992-1993). The influence of television on children's fantasy styles: A secondary analysis. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 12, 55-67.
Vandewater, E. A., Shim, M. & Caplovitz, A. G. (2004). Linking obesity and activity level with children's television and video game use. Journal of Adolescence, 27, 71-85.
Veach, L. J., Gladding, S. T. (2007). Using creative group techniques in high schools. Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 32.
Villani, S. (2001). Impact of media on children and adolescents: A 10-year review of the research. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 40, 392-401.
Villani, V.S., Olson, C.K., and Jellinek, M. S. (2005). Media literacy for clinicians and parents. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 4, 523-544.
Wass, H., Raup, J. L., Cerullo, K. & Martel, L. G. (1988-1999). Adolescents' interest in and views of destructive themes in rock music. Omega: Journal of Death and Dying, 19.
Wass, H., Miller, M. D. & Redditt, C. A. (1991). Adolescents and destructive themes in rock music: A follow-up. Omega: Journal of Death and Dying, 23.
Watkins, W. G. & Rickson, D. J. (2003). Music therapy to promote prosocial behavior in aggressive adolescent boys: A pilot study. Journal of Music Therapy, 40, 283-301.
Weber, R., Ritterfeld, U., & Mathiak, K. (2006). Does playing violent video games induce aggression? Empirical evidence of a functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Media Psychology, 8, 39-60.
Weinstein, S. (2007a). A love for the thing: The pleasures of rap as a literate practice. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 50, 270-281.
Weinstein, S. (2007b). Pregnancy, pimps, and "Clich?d Love Things" writing through gender and sexuality. Written Communication, 24, 28-48.
Whipple, J. (2004). Music in intervention for children and adolescents with autism: A meta analysis. Journal of Music Therapy, 41, 90-106.
Whitehead-Pleaux, A. M., Zebrowski, N., Baryza, M. J. & Sheridan, R. L. (2007). Exploring the effects of music therapy on pediatric pain: Phase 1. Journal of Music Therapy, 44, 217-241.
Whitwell, G. E. (1999). The importance of prenatal sound and music. Journal of Prenatal & Perinatal Psychology & Health, 13.
Wilkin, P. E. (1995). A comparison of fetal and newborn responses to music and sound stimuli with and without daily exposure to a specific piece of music. Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education, 127, 163-169.
Wingood, G. M., DiClemente, R. J., Bernhardt, J. M., Harrington, K., Davies, S. L., & Robillard, A. H. (2003). A prospective study of exposure to rap music videos and African American female adolescents' health. American Journal of Public Health, 93, 437-439.
Wingwood, G., DiClemente, R., Harrington, K., Davies, S., Hook, E., Oh, M.K. (2001). Exposure to X-rated Movies and Adolescents' Sexual and Contraceptive-Related Attitudes and Behaviors. Pediatrics. 107, 1116-1119.
Wolak, J., Mitchell, K., & Finkelhor, D. (2007). Unwanted and wanted exposure to online pornography in a national sample of youth internet users. Pediatrics, 199, 247-257.
Ybarra, M. L. & Mitchell, K. J. (2008). How risky are social networking sites: A comparison of places of online where youth sexual solicitation and harassment occurs. Pediatrics, 121, 350-357.
Zachopoulou, E., Tsapakidou, A., Derri, V. (2004). The effects of a developmentally appropriate music and movement program on motor performance. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 19, 631-642.
Zimmerman, F.J., & Christakis, D.A. (2005). Children's television viewing and cognitive outcomes. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med., 159, 619-625.