University of Minnesota
Critical Media Literacy

Critical Media Literacy Homepage


For researchers and educators looking for existing research on children and media literacy, here is an extensive list of sources to consult:

Abad, V., & Williams, K. E. Early intervention music therapy: Reporting on a 3-year project to address needs with at-risk families. Music Therapy Perspectives, 25, 52-59.

Allen, M., Jorgenson, J., Ryan, D. J., Herrett-Skjellum, J., Kramer, M. R. & Timmerman, L.

(2007). Effects of music. In R. W. Preiss, B. M. Gayle, N. Burrell, M. Allen & J. Bryan (Eds). Mass Media Effects Research: Advances Through Meta-Analysis. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.

American Academy of Pediatrics. (1999). Understanding the impact of media on children and teens [Brochure]. Elk Grove Village, IL: Author.

American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Public Education. (2001). Children, adolescents, and television. Pediatrics, 107, 423-426.

Anderson, C.A., Berkowitz, L., Donnerstein, E., Huesmann, L.R., Johnson, J.D., Linz, D., et al. (2003). The influence of media violence on youth. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 4(3), 81-110.

Anderson, C. A., & Bushman, B. J. (2001). Effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousal, and prosocial behavior: A meta-analytic review of the scientific literature. Psychological Science, 12, 353-359.

Anderson, S. A. (2007). The effect of music on the reading comprehension of junior high school students. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences, 67.

Anderson, D.R., Lorch, E.P., Field, D.E., Collins, P.A., and Nathan, J.G. (1986). Television viewing at home: Age trends in visual attention and time with TV. Child Development, 57, 1024-1033.

Arnett, J. (1992). The soundtrack of recklessness: Musical preferences and reckless behavior among adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Research, 7, 313-331.

Ashby, S.L., Arcari, C.M., & Edmonson, B. (2006). Television viewing and risk of sexual initiation by young adolescents. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med., 160, 375-380.

Ayres, B. (Ed.). (2003). The emperor's old groove: Decolonizing Disney's magic kingdom. New York: Peter Lang.

Beasley, B. & Standley, T. C. (2002). Shirts vs. skins: Clothing as an indicator of gender role stereotyping in video games. Mass Communication and Society, 5, 279-293.

Begley, S. (2000). Music on the mind. Newsweek, 136, 50.

Bell, E., Haas, L. & Sells, E. (Eds.). (1995). From mouse to mermaid: The politics of film, gender and culture. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Bell, B. T., Lawton, R. & Dittmar, H. (YR). The impact of thin models in music videos on adolescent girls' body dissatisfaction. Body Image, 4, 137-145.

Bem, S. L. (1993). The lenses of gender: Transforming the debate on sexual inequality. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Blumenfeld, H., & Eisenfeld, L. (2006). Does a mother singing to her premature baby affect feeding in the neonatal intensive care unit? Clinical Pediatrics, 45, 65-70.

Boen, J. & Sampson, D. (1993). Movies, guns and kids. Pediatrics, 92, 188.

Boynton-Jarrett, R., Thomas, T.N., Peterson, K.E., Wiecha, J., Sobol, A.M., & Gortmaker, S.L. (2003). Impact of television viewing patterns on fruit and vegetable consumption among adolescents. Pediatrics, 112, 1321-1326.

Bretthauer, B., Zimmerman, T. S. & Banning, J. H. (2006). A feminist analysis of popular music: Power over, objectification of, and violence against women. Journal of Feminist Family Therapy, 18, 29-51.

Brockus, S. (2004). Where magic lives: Disney's Cultivation, co-creation, and control of America's cultural objects. Popular Communication, 2, 191-211.

Brooke, S. L. (2007). The use of the creative therapies with sexual abuse survivors. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas Publisher.

Brown, B., Bradford, & Mounts, N. (1993). Parenting practices and peer group affiliation in adolescence. Child Development, 64, 467-482.

Brown, J., Sherrill, C., & Gench, B. (1981). Effects of an integrated physical education/music program in changing early childhood perceptual-motor performance. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 53, 151-154.

Brown University. (2006). Music lessons may enhance cognitive development. Brown University Child & Adolescent Behavior Letter, 22, 2.

Brumberg, J. J. (1997). The body project: An intimate history of American girls. NY: Random House.

Budd, M. & Kirsch, M. H. (2005). Rethinking Disney: Private control, public dimensions. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press.

Bushman, B.J., & Huesmann, L.R. (2001). Effects of televised violence on aggression. In. D.G. Singer and J.L. Singer (eds.), Handbook of children and the media (pp. 223-254). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Cai, X. & Gantz, W. (2000). Online privacy issues associated with web sites for children. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 44, 197-215.

Campbell, P. S, Connell, C. & Beegle, A. (2007). Adolescents' expressed meanings of music in and out of school. Journal of Research in Music Education.

Cantor, J. (1998). Mommy I'm Scared: How TV and Movies Frighten Children and What We Can Do to Protect Them. New York: Harcourt Brace & Company.

Cantor, J. (2004). "I'll Never Have a Clown in My House"—Why movie horror lives on. Poetics Today, 25(2), 283-304.

Cantor, J., Mares, M., & Hyde, J. (2003). Autobiographical Memories of Exposure to Sexual Media Content. Media Psychology, 5, 1-31.

Cantor, J., Wilson, B.J., & Hoffner, C. (1986). Emotional responses to a televised nuclear holocaust film. Communication Research, 13, 257-277.

Cassity, H. D., Henley, T. B. & Markley, R. P. (2007). The Mozart Effect: Musical phenomenon or musical preference? A more ecologically valid reconsideration. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 34, 13-17.

Cella, D. F., Tulsky, D. S., Sarafian, B., Thomas, C. R, Jr., & Thomas, C. R., Sr. (1992). Culturally relevant smoking prevention for minority youth. Journal of School Health, 62, 377-380.

Chase, K. M. (2004). Music therapy assessment for children with developmental disabilities: A survey study. Journal of Music Therapy, 41, 28- 54.

Chen, D. D., Xiaohong, X. Q., Sallam, Z. J. Y., Chen, H. & Jiande, D. Z. (2008). Effects of audio

stimulation on gastric myoelectrical activity and sympathovagal balance in healthy adolescents and adults. Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, 23, 141-149.

Chen, M. J., Miller, B. A & Grube, J. W. (2006). Influence of music on youth behaviors. Brown University Child & Adolescent Behavior Letter, 22, 3-4.

Chinet, L., Philippe, S., Zobel, F., & Halfon, O. (2007). Party drug use in techno nights: A field survey among French-speaking Swiss attendees. Pharmacology, Biochemistry & Behavior, 86, 284-289.

Children Now. (2001). Fair play? Violence gender and race in video games. Oakland, CA: Children Now.

Cho, C. H & Cheon, H. J. (2005). Children's exposure to negative internet content: Effects of family context. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 49, 488-509.

Christakis, D.A., & Zimmerman, F.J. (2007). Violent television viewing during preschool is associated with antisocial behavior during school age. Pediatrics, 120, 993-999.

Committee on Public Education. (1999). Media education. Pediatrics, 104, 341-343.

Crowe, B. J. & Rio, R. (2004). Implications of technology in music therapy practice and research for music therapy education: A review of literature. Journal of Music Therapy, 41, 282-320.

Dalton, M., Adachi-Mejia, A., Longacre, M., Titus-Ernstoff, L., Gibson, J., Martin, S., Sargent, J., & Beach, M. (2006). Parental rules and monitoring of children's movie viewing associated with children's risk for smoking and drinking. Pediatrics, 118, 1932-1942.

Dalton, T. A. & Krout, R. E. (2006). The grief song-writing process with bereaved adolescents: An integrated grief model and music therapy protocol. Music Therapy Perspectives, 24, 94-107.

Davis, G. (2007). Children's media skew gender. USA Today. 19a.

Delmas, C., Platat, C., Schweitzer, B., Wagner, A., Oujaa, M., & Simon, C. (2007). Association between television in bedroom and adiposity throughout adolescence. Obestity, 15(10), 2495-2503.

Diamond, S., Bermudez, R. & Schensul, J. (2006). What's the rap about Ecstasy? Popular music lyrics and drug trends among American youth. Journal of Adolescent Research, 21, 269-298.

Diaz-Guerero, R., & Holtzman, W.H. (1974). Learning by televised "Plaza Sesamo" in Mexico. Journal of Educational Psychology, 66, 632-643.

Dietz, T. L. (1998). An examination of violence and gender role portrayals in video games: Implications for gender socialization. Sex Roles, 38, 425-433.

Dobson, R. (2006). Doctors will test whether Mozart can reduce stress in babies. British Medical Journal, 332, 688-688.

Donnerstein, E., Slaby, R. G., & Eron, L.D. (1994). The mass media and youth aggression. In L. D. Eron, J. H. Gentry, & P. Schlegel (Eds.), Reason to hope: A psychological perspective on violence and youth (pp. 219-250). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Downs, E. & Smith, S. L. (2007). Keeping abreast of hypersexuality: A video game character content analysis. Manuscript under review at Sex Roles.

Eleanor, D. (2007). To what extent does participation in extracurricular music affect the future aspirations of 11-12 year-olds? A small-scale investigation. British Journal of Music Education, 24, 99-115.

Eliakim, M., Meckel, V., Nemet, D. & Eliakim, A. (2007). The effect of music during warm-up on consecutive anaerobic performance in elite adolescent volleyball players. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 28, 321-325.

Entertainment Software Association. (2004). Top ten industry facts. Retrieved on April 15, 2008 from

Eron, L.D., Huesmann, L.R., Brice, P., Fischer, P., & Mermelstein, R. (1983). Age trends in the development of aggression and associated television habits. Developmental Psychology, 19, 71-77.

Federal Trade Commision. (May, 2006). Social networking sites: Safety tips for tweens and teens. Retrieved March 18, 2008 from

Field, A.E., Cheung, L., & Wolf, A.M. (1999). Exposure to mass media and weight concerns among girls. Pediatrics, 103, 36.

Fisher, W. & Barack, A. (2001). Internet pornography: A social psychological perspective on internet sexuality. Journal of Sex Research, 38, 312-323.

Fleming, M. J. & Rickwood, D. J. (2001). Effects of violent versus nonviolent video games on children's arousal, aggressive mood, and positive mood. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 31, 2047-2071.

Flerx, V. C., Fidler, D. S., & Rogers, R. W. (1976). Sex Role Stereotypes: Developmental Aspects and Early Intervention. Child Development, 47, 998-1007.

Fling S., Smith, I., Rodriguez, T., Thornton, D., Atkins, E. & Nixon, K. (1992). Video games, aggression, and self-esteem: A survey. Social Behavior and Personality, 20, 39-46.

Fredrickson, B.L. & Roberts, T-A. (1997). Objectification theory: Toward understanding women's lived experience and mental health risks. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 21, 173-206.

Friedrich-Cofer, L.K., Huston-Stein, A., Kipnis, D.M., Susman, E.J., & Clewett, A.S. (1979). Environmental enhancement of prosocial television content: Effects on interpersonal behavior, imaginative play, and self-regulation in a natural setting. Environmental Psychology, 15, 637-646.

Gallo, S. (2004). Music preference with an emphasis on gangsta rap: Female adolescent identity, beliefs, and behaviors. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 64.

Game Ratings & Descriptor Guide. (2008). Entertainment Software Rating Board. Retrieved February 13, 2008 from

Gardstrom, S. (1999). Music exposure and criminal behavior: Perceptions of juvenile offenders. Journal of Music Therapy, 36, 207-221.

Geist, E.A., & Gibson, M. (2000). The effect of network and public television on four and five year olds ability to attend to educational tasks. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 27, 250-261.

Generation M: Media in the Lives of 8-18 Year-olds. (2005). Kaiser Family Foundation. Retrieved February 13, 2008 from

Gentile, D.A. (2003). Media Violence and Children: A Complete Guide for Parents and Professionals. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.

Gfeller, K. (2007). Professional perspectives of music therapy: A 30-year retrospective introduction. Music Therapy Perspectives, 25, 73-75.

Ghetti, C. M. (2002). Comparison of the effectiveness of three music therapy conditions to modulate behavior states in students with profound disabilities: A pilot study. Music Therapy Perspectives, 20, 20-30.

Ginsburg, K.R. (2007). Clinical report: The importance of play in promoting healthy child development and maintaining strong parent-child bonds. American Academy of Pediatrics.

Godeli, M. R., Santana, P. R., Souza, V. H P & Marquetti, G. P. (1996). Influence of background music on preschoolers' behavior: A naturalistic approach. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 82, 1123-1129.

Gold, C., Voracek, M. & Wigram, T. (2004). Effects of music therapy for children and adolescents with psychopathology: A meta-analysis. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45, 1054-1063.

Gorn, G.J., Goldberg, M.E., and Kanungo, R.N. (1976). The role of educational television in changing the intergroup attitudes of children. Child Development, 47, 277-280.

Greenfield, P. M., Bruzzone, L., Koyamatsu, K., Satuloff, W., Nixon, K., Brodie, M. & Kingsdale, D. (1987). What is rock music doing to the minds of our youth? A first experimental look at the effects of rock music lyrics and music videos. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 7, 315-329.

Hancox, R.J., Milne, B.J., & Poulton, R. (2005). Association of television viewing during childhood with poor educational development. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med., 159, 614-618.

Hakanen, E. A. (1995). Emotional use of music by African American adolescents. Howard Journal of Communications, 5, 214-222.

Haninger K., Ryan M.S., & Thompson K.M. (2001). Violence in teen-rated video games. Medscape General Medicine, 6, 124-139.

Harrison, K. & Cantor, J. (1999). Tales from the screen: Enduring fright reactions to scary media. Media Psychology, 1, 97-116.

Harrison, K. & Cantor, J. (1997). The relationship between media consumption and eating disorders. Journal of Communication, 47, 40-67.

Haugland, S. W. (1992). The effect of computer software on preschool children's developmental gains. Journal of Computing in Childhood Education, 3, 15-30.

Hilliard, R. E. (2007). The effects of Orff-based music therapy and social work groups on childhood grief symptoms and behaviors. Journal of Music Therapy, 44, 123-138.

Hinduja, Sameer, & Patchin, J. W. (2008). Personal information of adolescents on the internet: A quantitative content analysis of MySpace. Journal of Adolescence, 31, 125-146.

Ho, Y. C., Cheung, M. C. & Chan, A. S. (2003). Music training improves verbal but not visual memory: Cross-sectional and longitudinal explorations in children. Neuropsychology, 17, 439-450.

Hogan, M. J. (2001). Parents and other adults: Models and monitors of health media habits. In D. Singer & J. Singer (Eds.), Handbook of Children and the Media (pp. 663-680). Los Angeles, CA: Sage.

Hohman, C. (1998). Evaluating and selecting software for children. Child Care Information Exchange, 123, 60-62.

Holder-Nevins, D. & Bain, B. (2001). HIV/AIDS and children in the English speaking Caribbean.

Hornik, R. (1978). Television access and the slowing of cognitive growth. American Educational Research Journal, 15(1), 1-15.

Huesmann, L.R., & Eron, L.D. (1984). Cognitive processes and the persistence of aggressive behavior. Aggressive Behavior, 10, 243-251.

Huesmann, L.R., Moise, J., Podolski, C.P., & Eron, L.D. (2003). Longitudinal relations between children's exposure to TV violence and their aggressive and violent behavior in young adulthood: 1977-1992. Developmental Psychology, 39(2), 201-221.

Huston, A.C., Donnerstein, E., Fairchild, H., Feshbach, N.D., Katz, P.A., Murray, J.P., Rubinstein, E.A., Wilcox, B.L., & Zuckerman, D. (1992). Big world, small screen: The role of television in American society. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press.

Huston-Stein, A.C., Fox, S., Greer, D., Watkins, B.A., & Whitaker, J. (1981). The effects of action and violence in television programs on the social behavior and imaginative play of preschool children. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 138, 183-191.

Huston, A.C., & Wright, J.C. (1998). Television and the informational and educational needs of children. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 557, 9-23.

Jansma, L., Linz, D., Mulac, A. & Imrich, D. (1997). Men's interactions with women after viewing sexually explicit films: Does degradation make a difference? Communication Monographs, 64, 1-24.

Jensen Arnett, J. (2007). Encyclopedia of children, adolescents and the media. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.

Johnson, J.G., Cohen, P., Kasen, S., & Brook, J.S. (2007). Extensive television viewing and the development of attention and learning difficulties during adolescence. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med., 161, 480-486.

Johnson, J.G., Cohen, P., Smailes, E.M., Kasen, S., & Brook, J.S. (2002). Television viewing and aggressive behavior during adolescence and adulthood. Science, 295(5564), 2468-2471.

Johnsson-Smaragdi, U. & Jonsson, A. (1994). Self-evaluation in an ecological perspective: Neighbourhood, family and peers, schooling and media use. In K.E. Rosengren (Ed.). Media effects and behond. London: Routledge.

Johnston Polacek, G. N. L., Rojas, V., Levitt, S., & Mika, V. S. (2006). Media and sex: Perspectives from Hispanic teens. American Journal of Sexuality Education, 1, 51-69.

Jones, J. D. (2006a). Songs composed for use in music therapy: A survey of original songwriting practices of music therapists. Journal of Music Therapy, 43, 94-110.

Jones, J. D. (2006b). The use of control groups in music therapy research: A content analysis of articles in the Journal of Music Therapy. Journal of Music Therapy, 42, 334-355.

Jones, J. D. (2005). A comparison of songwriting and lyric analysis techniques to evoke emotional change in a single session with people who are chemically dependent. Journal of Music Therapy, 42, 94-110.

Kelly, J. & Smith, S. L. (2006). Where the girls aren't: Gender disparity saturates G-rated films.

Kennedy, R. & Scott, A. (2005). A pilot study: The effects of music therapy intervention on middle school students' ESL skills. Journal of Music Therapy, 42, 244-261.

Klein, J., Brown, J., Dykers, C., Childers, K. W., Oliveri, J. & Porter, C. (1993). Adolescents risky behavior and mass media use. Pediatrics, 92, 24-31.

Knobloch, S. Vorderer, P., & Zillman, D. (2000). The impact of music preferences on the perception of potential friends in adolescence. Zeitschrift fur Sozialpsychologie, 31.

Kodaira, S. (1990). The development of programs for young children in Japan. Journal of Educational Television, 16(3), 127-150.

Kuntsche, E.N. (2003). Hostility among adolescents in Switzerland? Multivariate relations between excessive media use and forms of violence. Journal of Adolescent Health, 34(3), 230-236.

Labre, M. P. (2002). Adolescent boys and the muscular male body ideal. Journal of Adolescent Health, 30, 233-242.

Landhuis, C.E., Poulton, R., Welch, D., & Hancox, R.J. (2007). Does childhood television viewing lead to attention problems in adolescence? Results from a prospective longitudinal study. Pediatrics, 120, 532-537.

Leming, J. S. (1987). Rock music and the socialization of moral values in early adolescence. Youth & Society, 18, 363-383.

Lemish, D., Liebes, T. & Seidmann, V. (2001). Gendered Media Meanings and Uses. In S. Livingstone & M. Bovill (Ed.) Children and their changing media environment: A European comparative study. London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

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Miranda, D. & Claes, M. (2004). Rap music genres and deviant behaviors in French-Canadian adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 33, 113-122.

Miranda, D. & Claes, M. (2007). Musical preferences and depression in adolescence. International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, 13.

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Montello, L. & Coons, E. E. (1998). Effects of active versus passive group music therapy on preadolescents with emotional, learning, and behavioral disorders. Journal of Music Therapy, 35, 49-67.

Montgomery, K. C. (2001). Digital kids: The new on-line children's consumer culture. In D. Singer & J. Singer (Eds.), Handbook of Children and the Media (pp. 635-649). Los Angeles, CA: Sage.

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Mulder, J., Bogt, T. T., Raaijmakers, Q. & Vollebergh, W. (2007). Music taste groups and problem behavior. Journal of Youth & Adolescence, 36, 313-324.

Murnen, S. K., Smolak, L., Mills, J. A., & Good, L. (2003). Thin, sexy women and strong, muscular men: Grade school children's reactions to objectified images of women and men. Sex Roles, 49, 427-437.

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Newcomb, M. D., St. Antoine Mercurio, C., & Wollard, C. A. (2000). Rock starts in anti-drug abuse commercials: An experimental study of adolescents' reactions. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 30, 1160-1185.

North, A. C. & Hargreaves, D. J. (1999). Music and adolescent identity. Music Education Research, 1, 75-92.

North, A. C. & Hargreaves, D. J. (2005). Brief report: Labeling effects on the perceived deleterious consequences of pop music listening. Journal of Adolescence, 28, 433-440.

North, A. C. & Hargreaves, D. J. (2006). Problem music and self-harming. Suicide and Life Threatening Behavior, 36, 582-590.

North, A. C., Hargreaves, D. J., & O'Neill, S. A. (2000). The importance of music to adolescents. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 70, 255-272.

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Polce-Lynch, M., Myers, B., Kliewer, W., & Kilmartin, C. (2001). Adolescent self-esteem and gender: Exploring relations to sexual harassment, body image, media influence, and emotional expression. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 30, 225-244.

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Rickson, D. J. (2006). Instructional and improvisational models of music therapy with adolescents who have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): A comparison of effects on motor impulsivity. Journal of Music Therapy, 43, 39-62.

Robb, S. L. (2003). Designing music therapy interventions for hospitalized children and adolescents using a contextual support model of music therapy. Music Therapy Perspectives, 21, 27-40.

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Roberts, M. (2006). "I want to play and sing my story": Home-based songwriting for bereaved children and adolescents. The Australian Journal of Music Therapy, 17, 18-34.

Roberts-Grey, G. (2006). Vexing video games—how they really affect our children. North Fulton Family. Retrieved February 13, 2008 from editorial2.lasso?id=1611

Rock, A.M., Trainor, L. J., & Addison, T. L. (1999). Distinctive messages in infant-directed lullabies and play songs. Developmental Psychology, 35, 527-534.

Ryan, E. & Hoerrner, K. (2004). Let your conscience be your guide: Smoking and drinking in Disney's animated classics. Mass Communication and Society, 7(3), 261-278.

Scheel, K. R. & Westefeld, J. S. (1999). Heavy metal music and adolescent suicidality: An empirical investigation. Adolescence, 34, 253-273.

Schellenberg, E. G. (2005). Music and cognitive abilities. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 14, 317-320.

Sexuality, contraception, and the media. (2001). Pediatrics, 107, 191-194.

Sherry, J. L. (2001). The effects of violent video games on aggression: A meta-analysis. Human Communication Research, 27, 409-431.

Singer, D.G., & Singer, J.L. (1994). Evaluating the classroom viewing of a television series: Degrassi Junior High. In Media, Children, and the Family (D. Zillmann, J. Bryant, and A.C. Huston, Eds.). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

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Silverman, M. J. (2006). Forty years of case studies: A history of clinical case studies in the Journal of Music Therapy, Music Therapy and Music Therapy Perspectives. Music Therapy Perspectives, 24, 4-12.

Silverman, M. J. (2003). The influence of music on the symptoms of psychosis: A meta-analysis. Journal of Music Therapy, 40, 27-40.

Slatalla, M. (1999, August 17). Young shoppers with online accounts learn about choices and budgeting. New York Times News Service.

Smith, S. L. & Cook, C. A. (2008). Gender Stereotypes: An Analysis of Popular Films and TV. The Geena Davis Institute on Gender and Media.

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